ESDU AZ Index: FLEFORF
 Aircraft
 Strength Analysis
 see also
 Flat Panels in General
 Flat Panels Under Compression
 description, 72012
 Struts Under Compression
 see
 Aerodynamic Loading
 Ailerons
 Attitude Angles
 Axes Systems in Aircraft Dynamics and Performance
 Control Systems
 Direction Angles
 Dutch Roll
 Dynamic Stability
 Equations of Motion
 Handling Qualities
 Incidence Angles
 Lateral Stability and Response
 Linear Systems
 Longitudinal Stability and Response
 NonLinear Systems
 Notation
 Parameter Identification
 Rolling
 Rudder
 SampledData Systems
 Static Aeroelasticity
 see also
 Jet Noise
 Typical and Load Factor Values for Various Aircraft Types, 94009
 see also
 Air Path
 Flight Path Optimisation
 see also
 CruiseClimb
 Climb Using Energy Height Techniques
 calculation method for rapid estimation by personal computer, 91016
 calculation methods, 90012, 91016
 calculation method using flight test level accelerations, 70023
 comparison of results with those from a multivariate gradientsearch method, 93021
 effect of using practical offoptimum climb schedule, 90012
 estimation of effect of required simplifications on results, 90012
 introduction to method and required simplifications of equations of motion, 90012
 likely errors caused by assumptions intrinsic to method, 90012
 worked example of time to height showing effect of weight change, 70021
 worked examples of time and fuel to height and speed, 90012, 91016
 worked examples of time and fuel to height, speed and distance, 90012, 91016
 Discussion of Use of Mutivariate GradientSearch Techniques
 basis of method and need to set tolerance on result, 94012
 difficulties in application with specific examples, 94012
 need for userwritten routines to calculate flight path segments, 94012
 operation of program RQPMIN, 94012
 Examples of Mutivariate GradientSearch Applied to Complete Sortie (Climb, Cruise, Descent, Hold, etc)
 to maximise range under chosen design and operational constraints, 94016
 to maximise various objective functions under various design and operational constraints, 93021
 General Introduction to Data Items on, 80026
 Introduction to General Cases, 89015
 simplifications possible to achieve practical solutions, 89015
 Derivation of Indicated True Airspeed, TM 199
 Determination of True Airspeed and Wind Speed from Flight Test Data, 20007
 Development of mathematical model from flight test data, 15001
 Inflight calibration of an angle of attack sensor, 17013, TM 185
 Methods of Processing Performance Data, 80009
 factors affecting choice of method, 80009
 Performance Data from Manoeuvring Flight, TM 190
 Thrustdrag Accounting From Flight Test Data, 16003
 Pressure Drop Across, 66030
 see
 Aircraft Tyres
 Analysis of Aircraft Tests on Flooded Runways, TM 192
 see also
 Buffeting
 LiftCurve Slope
 Maximum Lift
 Aerofoils at Subcritical Speeds
 characteristics, 66034, 84026, 87012, 94026
 effect on liftcurve slope, 66034, 94026
 prediction of leadingedge, 88030
 prediction of trailingedge, 88030
 Aerofoils at Transonic Speeds
 application of VGK for separation prediction, 97030
 boundary layer criteria for shockinduced separation on uppersurface, 81020
 characteristics, 87012, 90008
 comparison of results obtained using VGK with experimental data, 97030
 criteria for shockinduced flow breakdown, 91021
 discussion of shockinduced separation types, 90008
 flow breakdown boundary from pressure distribution and boundary layer characteristics, 91021
 illustration of shockinduced separation types, 90008
 reattachment point on upper surface, 91021
 separation boundary from computed pressure distribution, 92008
 separation boundary from computed pressure distribution and boundary layer, 81020, 97030
 shock/boundary layer interaction length, 90008
 shockinduced bubble length, 90008, 91021
 upstream Mach number for flow breakdown, 90008, 91021
 Area or Mass Flow Ratio for Onset of Intake Spillage
 on conical cowls, 84004
 on elliptical, parabolic and other cowls, 84004
 on NACA 1Series cowls, 81024, 84004
 Concept and Preliminary Design Examples of Applying Rapid Aerodynamic Analysis Tools to Three Classic Historical Configurations Designed to Similar Requirements, TM 207
 Control of ShockInduced
 Crossflow About Bluff Bodies
 discussion of fluctuating forces, 77032
 Cylindrical Body at Angle of Attack, 89014
 effect of Reynolds number on flow regimes, 89014
 vortex separation points in supersonic flow, 91042
 Description of Process, 71012
 Diffusers
 critical geometries for annular, 75026
 critical geometries for conical, 73024
 critical geometries for planewalled with singleplane expansion, 74015
 discussion of methods of control and their effectiveness, 76027
 Induced on Afterbody by Underexpanded Propulsive Jet
 discussion of phenomenon, 99010
 Over Topographical Features
 effect on wind speedup factors, 01008, 91043
 Validation
 against RAE Model W4, 13013
 of pressures and integral boundary layer data against M2155, 13013
 Viscous Fullpotential (VFP) Method for Three Dimensional Wings and WingBody Combinations
 VFP analysis programs for flow breakdown and forces and loads, 21002
 Wings at Subcritical Speeds
 prediction of leading or trailingedge on plane or cambered and twisted, 88030
 Wings at Transonic Speeds
 criteria for shockinduced flow breakdown, 91021
 flow breakdown boundary from pressure distribution and boundary layer characteristics, 91021
 Physical Properties
 Laser Induced for Temperature Measurement of Gases
 Kinematic Viscosity
 typical values, 71003
 see
 Intakes
 Spillage Drag
 see also
 Flutter Derivatives
 Aerofoil Oscillating in Heave or Pitch or With an Oscillating Control

 see also
 Pressure Distribution
 forces and moments as functions of Mach number and frequency, 81034, 82005
 lift, pitching moment and hinge moment in subsonic flow, 81034
 lift, pitching moment and hinge moment in supersonic flow, 82005
 use of aerofoil data in wing flutter calculations, 81034
 Bodies of Revolution Oscillating in Bending, Heave or Pitch
 lift distribution and pitching moment as functions of frequency, 83010
 Relationship With Airforce Coefficients, 81034, 83010
 Use to Predict Flutter, 81034, 82020
 Use of to Determine Pressure Error Correction Coefficient, 20006
 Description, 87034
 see also
 Balancing of Linkages
 Linkages
 Advantages and Limitations of Various Methods Singly or in Combination
 counterweights, 89043
 duplicate linkage added antisymmetrically or with mirrorimage symmetry, 89043
 dyad added, 89043
 Lanchester balancer, 89043
 Design Procedure for Elimination of Shaking Force on Planar MultiBar Linkages
 determination of masses and their locations, 89028
 use of OSMEC program to determine masses and their locations, 97026
 Use of Constant Speed Rotating Counterweights For Partial Balance of Planar Linkages
 alignment and mass of generalised Lanchester Balancer, 90007
 alignment and mass of Lanchester Balancer, 90007
 alignment and mass of single counterweight, 90007
 AnnularSection Pipes With Uniform or Varying Axial Heat Flux, 81045
 criteria for negligible effects of free convection, 81045
 eccentricity effects, 81045
 entrance effects, 81045
 variable fluid property effects, 81045
 Archimedian or Helical Coils, 78031
 criteria for applicability of data for straight ducts, 78031
 criteria for negligible effects of free convection, 78031
 noncircular crosssection effects, 78031
 pitch effects, 78031
 thermal entrance effects, 78031
 variable fluid property effects, 78031
 variation of heat transfer around circumference, 78031
 Between Parallel Plates With Uniform or Varying Axial Heat Flux, 81045
 CircularSection Cylinders or Tubes in Crossflow
 approximate equation for atmospheric air, 78029
 effect of number of rows in bank, 73031
 effect of tube bank arrangement and geometry, 73031
 gases and liquids about single tube, 69004
 gases and liquids through tube bank, 73031
 orientation effects for single tube, 69004
 orientation effects for tube bank, 73031
 rowtorow variation through tube bank, 73031
 variable fluid property effects for single tube, 69004
 variable fluid property effects for tube bank, 73031
 Colburn jFactor Used to Model Inside Tubes
 approximate expressions for various types of tube inserts, 97007
 definition, 97007
 Discussion of Aerodynamic Heating and Equilibrium Surface Temperature, 69009, 89022
 Enhancement by Use of Roughness Elements
 calculation of effect of random or systematic roughness from known friction factor, 82021
 random or systematic roughness in turbulent flow, 82021
 twisted tape inserts, 00041, 95027, 97007
 various types of tube inserts including twisted tapes, 00041, 97007
 Flat Plates at Incidence in Supersonic Flow
 laminar boundary layer, 69010
 turbulent boundary layer, 69011
 Flat Plates at Zero Incidence in Subsonic or Supersonic Flow
 application to circularsection cylinders at zero incidence, 69010, 69011
 application to cones and wedges at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 69010, 69011
 laminar boundary layer, 69010
 turbulent boundary layer, 69011
 Flow in CircularSection Pipes
 charts for rapid evaluation for steam or water, 81044
 gases, 92003, 93018, AERO 00.02.05
 liquids, 92003, 93018
 Flow in NonCircular Section Ducts
 gases, AERO 00.02.05
 HighFin Tubes in Crossflow
 comparison of predictions with experimental results, 86022
 effect of number of rows in bank, 86022
 effect of tube bank arrangement and geometry, 86022
 effect of variable fluid properties for flow through bank, 86022
 singlephase gas or liquid flow through bank, 86022
 Laminar Flow in CircularSection Pipes With Combined Forced/Free Convection, Uniform Wall Temperature
 horizontal pipes, 93018
 vertical pipes, buoyancyassisted or opposed, 93018
 Laminar Flow in CircularSection Pipes With Uniform Wall Temperature or Uniform Heat Flux
 effect of radial variation of liquid viscosity, 93018
 fullydeveloped, thermallydeveloping or simultaneouslydeveloping entrance flow, 93018
 LowFin Tubes in Crossflow
 comparison of predictions with experimental results, 84016
 effect of number of rows in bank, 84016
 effect of tube bank arrangement and geometry, 84016
 effect of variable fluid properties for flow through bank, 84016
 singlephase gas or liquid flow through bank, 84016
 Recovery Temperature in Gas Flow
 variation with Mach number and temperature, AERO W.S.00.03.18
 Rotating Shafts in Crossflow
 approximate equations for atmospheric air, 78029, 97019
 To or From Shapes Approximating Rectangular Bodies
 approximate equation for atmospheric air, 78029, 97019
 Transitional Flow in CircularSection Pipes
 recommendations for interpolating between laminar and turbulent flow, 93018
 Turbulent Flow in CircularSection Ducts, 92003, AERO 00.02.05, AERO 00.03.26
 accuracy of six estimation equations in various ReynoldsPrandtl number regimes, 92003
 charts for rapid evaluation for steam or water, 81044
 compressibility effects, AERO 00.02.05
 distribution of Nusselt number in thermally or simultaneouslydeveloping flow, 93018
 distribution of Stanton number in thermallydeveloping flow, AERO 00.02.05
 free convection effects, 93018
 graphical comparison of six estimation equations, 92003
 Petukov equations for estimation, 92003
 ReynoldsPrandtl number regime for existence, 92003
 thermal entrance lengths for various ReynoldsPrandtl number regimes, 92003
 variable fluid property effects, 92003, AERO 00.02.05
 variable heat flux distribution, AERO 00.02.05, AERO 00.03.26
 Turbulent Flow in NonCircular Section Ducts, AERO 00.02.05
 compressibility effects, AERO 00.02.05
 thermal entrance effects, AERO 00.02.05
 variable fluid property effects, AERO 00.02.05
 variable heat flux distribution, AERO 00.02.05, AERO 00.03.26
 Aerodynamic
 concept and preliminary design examples of applying rapid aerodynamic analysis tools to three classic historical configurations designed to similar requirements, TM 207
 expressed as an expansion in terms of small perturbations, 67003, 86021
 functional dependence, 86021
 Viscous fullpotential (VFP) method for three dimensional wings and wingbody combinations  VFP analysis programs for flow breakdown and forces and loads, 21002
 Axes Transformation, 67004, 67036, 78038, 82031, 85030, 86041
 Contact
 Due to Internal Flow
 On Aircraft and Components
 On Bearings in Planar MultiBar Linkages
 analysis using OSMEC program, 97026
 worked example to illustrate use of OSMEC program to calculate, 98023
 On Buildings and Structures Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows
 Blunted
 description of flow development with increasing Mach number, 82018
 Blunted Conical
 axial pressure force at low incidence in transonic flow, 89033
 foredrag (pressure drag and skin friction) at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 68021
 geometrical relations for spherical blunting, 68021, 77028, 82018, 82028, 83017
 normalforcecurve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
 normal pressure force at low incidence in transonic flow, 89033
 optimum blunting for minimum pressure drag, 89033
 pitchingmomentcurve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
 planform area and its centroid, 77028
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in subsonic or transonic flow, 83018
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in high supersonic or hypersonic flow, 82028
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 83017, 89033
 surface area and volume, nose angle or radius of curvature, 77028
 Blunted Paraboloid
 geometrical relations for spherical blunting, 79004
 planform area and its centroid, 77028
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 79004
 surface area, nose angle or radius of curvature, 77028
 volume, 77028, 79004
 Blunted Tangent or Secant Ogive
 geometrical relations for spherical blunting, 77028, 82018, 83017
 planform area and its centroid, 77028
 surface area and volume, nose angle or radius of curvature, 77028
 Conical
 foredrag (pressure drag and skin friction) at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 68021
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in subsonic or transonic flow, 83018
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in high supersonic or hypersonic flow, 82028
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 83017
 Cowl
 Cowl afterbody forces, 16003
 Cowl forebody forces, 16003
 Ducted Conical or Parabolic
 external wave drag at zero incidence, AERO B.S.02.03.02
 Ducted Elliptical Cross Section
 external wave drag at zero incidence, AERO B.S.02.03.02
 Ellipsoidal
 geometrical relations, 82018
 normalforcecurve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
 pitchingmomentcurve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
 planform area and its centroid, 77028
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 82018
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008, 82018
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 80021
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 79004
 surface area, nose angle or radius of curvature, 77028
 volume, 77028, 79004
 FlatFaced
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82028
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 80021
 FlatFaced With Shoulder Radius
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 80021
 Hemispherical
 foredrag (pressure drag and skin friction) at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 68021
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in subsonic flow, 82018, 83018
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008, 82018, 83018
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82028
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 80021
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 79004, 83017
 Introduction to Estimation of Wave Drag, AERO B.S.02.03.01
 Ogive
 pressure distribution in supersonic flow, AERO B.S.05.03.01
 Ogive With Nose Blunting
 axial pressure force at low incidence in transonic flow, 89033
 normal pressure force at low incidence in transonic flow, 89033
 optimum blunting for minimum pressure drag, 89033
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 89033
 Ogive With or Without Nose Blunting
 geometrical relations for spherical blunting, 77028, 79004, 82018, 83017
 normalforcecurve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
 pitchingmomentcurve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
 planform area and its centroid, 77028
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in subsonic flow, 82018, 83018
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in transonic flow, 83018
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 80021
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 79004, 83017
 surface area, nose angle or radius of curvature, 77028
 volume, 77028, 79004
 Planform Areas and Their Centroids for Various Shapes, 77028
 SphericallyCurved Face With Sharp Shoulder
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
 pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82028
 SphericallyCurved Face With Shoulder Radius
 pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
 Surface Area, Nose Angle or Radius of Curvature for Various Shapes and CrossSections, 77028
 Volume for Various Shapes, 77028, 79004
 Centre of Pressure, Normal Force and Pitching Moment
 incidences to 90? and Mach numbers to 5, 89014, 90034
 NormalForceCurve and PitchingMomentCurve Slopes
 zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
 Oscillating in Bending, Heave or Pitch
 lift distribution and pitching moment, 83010
 Pitching Moment Derivatives Due to Rate of Pitch and Acceleration in Heave
 low incidence and supersonic speeds, with or without boattailing and fins, 91004
 Planform Areas and Their Centroids for Various Shapes, 77028
 Sideforce at Mach Numbers Below 1.2 and Incidences Above 20?
 discussion of sources, 89014
 effect of Mach number and Reynolds number, 89014
 effect of nose blunting, 89014
 envelope of overall maximum with crossflow Mach number, 89014
 typical axial distributions, 89014
 Surface Areas and Volumes, Nose Angles or Radii of Curvature for Various Shapes, 77028
 see
 Wings